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Hematemesis: What Is It & How To Treat It?

About

Hematemesis is a condition in which a patient bleeds internally and vomits blood.

Hematemesis is an emergency medical condition and needs immediate attention. It can cause a shock (hypovolemic shock) in the patient if neglected. [1]

- Requires a diagnosis
- Can be medically treated
- Lab or image tests are required

Hematemesis can occur due to gastrointestinal bleeding. In most of the cases, this can happen due to internal organ injuries or organ rupture. It can start as a minor condition because of the swallowing of blood from a mouth injury or a nosebleed.

Symptoms

Following symptoms can be spotted in a patient suffering from hematemesis:
- Nausea
- Black or brown vomit
- Change in bowel movements. Stools are dark and tar-like
- Abdominal pain
- Vomiting

In severe cases, the below-mentioned symptoms can be seen in a patient:

- Increased heart rate
- Dizziness
- Blurred vision
- Cold skin
- Fainting
- Unbearable abdominal pain
- Confusion

Treatment

If the case of massive blood loss, a hematemesis patient is given a blood transfusion. Fluids are given through an IV to rehydrate the body. In rare instances like stomach or bowel perforation, bleeding ulcers, and internal injuries, surgery may be performed.

Self-care
Quit smoking and drinking alcohol. If you are on medications like NSAID, stop using them as they can cause bleeding in stomach.
Medications
Hematemesis is treated using proton pump inhibitors (antacid suppression), and fluid resuscitation. Additional medications are suggested depending on the diagnosis.

Specialists

This condition can be an emergency call for you to see a doctor. At mfine, the medical professionals can come up with the best solution possible by looking at your symptoms and medical history.
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