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Urine Test at Home - How it works?
What is a urine test?
Urinalysis is the test conducted by the lab technician with a sample of urine by testing a urine sample to detect and measure compounds that pass through urine. Urine tests give a clue on the potential irregularities in the body. Urine examination comprises a series of steps that helps to detect diseases or conditions such as diabetes, liver or kidney problems, urinary tract problems etc. Urine analysis checks for visual, chemical, and microscopic examination of the urine. The visual examination helps in the assessment of the color and clarity of the urine. The chemical examination is done for analyzing different substances in the urine. The microscopic examination identifies bacteria, cells, crystals, and other compounds in the urine.
What is urine test used for?
Urinalysis can identify the presence of diseases like diabetes and renal disease. If abnormalities are detected other tests may be required to find the cause of the disease and treat it accordingly.
What is included in a urine test?
A urine test involves testing the urine sample of the physical, chemical, and microscopic composition of the urine and analyzing the same for any disease. Any problem in the skin, kidney, lungs, bladder, urinary tract affects the urine’s quality color and appearance.
The physical analysis of urine evaluates the following parameters:
- Quantity – The urine output is 1000 to 1500 milliliters per day.
- Appearance – Healthy urine can vary from clear colorless to pale yellow.
- Color – As mentioned above it can be very clear if you are hydrated or be yellow due to dehydration or due to other abnormalities.
- Specific gravity – of urine is around 1.005 to 1.030.
- pH – pH of urine is 6.0 to 7.5.
- Deposit – deposits in urine could be due to red blood cells (RBC), pus cells (PC) , calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM) crystals, calcium oxalate dihydrate (COD) crystals, uric acid crystals, amorphous phosphates, epithelial cells and sperms.
And, the chemical analysis detects the presence of :
- Blood -if the patient has renal stones or urinary tract infection or kidney disease there are chances of blood in the urine which can be checked with a urine test.
- Sugar – diabetes can be checked via urine test.
- Urobilinogen – is formed from the reduction of bilirubin.
- Proteins – can be found in the urine in kidney diseases.
- Ketone – can be found in urine when fat gets burned excessively.
- Bile salts – if there is liver damage the bile salts are found in urine.
- Bile pigment – is found in the urine they are often yellow, orange, or green
Microscopic analysis of urine checks the presence of:
- Red blood cells – RBC is found in urine when there is an issue in the kidney or urinary tract.
- Epithelial cells – epithelial cells are cells that line the surfaces of your body, sometimes found in urine.
- Pus cells – WBC is found in urine which is called pus cells.
- Microbes – urine contains a few microbes, such as bacteria.
- Crystals – few small urine crystals are found in urine which is normal.
Urine Test Procedure:
Urine tests are analyzed in the following three ways:
In the visual exam, your lab technician examines the urine droplets through a microscope. Once examined they can inform about the:
- Abnormalities in your urine. Like the presence of red or white blood cells, signs of infections, kidney disease, bladder cancer, or a blood disorder.
- Crystals like structures may indicate kidney stones.
- Any infections causing bacteria or yeast infections.
- Epithelial cells, which can indicate a tumor or kidney injury.
For this type of dipstick test, your doctor inserts a plastic stick (which is coated with chemicals) into your sample. If the chemical strip changes the color then there is the presence of certain substances in the urine sample.
This test measures:
- Bilirubin – It is a yellowish pigment made by the liver caused by the death of RBC.
- Blood – Presence of blood in the urine sample.
- Protein – High levels of protein in urine can be a sign of kidney problems.
- Concentration or specific gravity – Abnormal concentration can occur as a result of not drinking enough fluids.
- Changes in pH levels or acidity – Higher PH levels may be a result of urinary tract disorder or a kidney disorder
- Sugars – Glucose levels are checked in the urine.
High concentrations of particles in your urine can indicate that you’re dehydrated. High pH levels can indicate urinary tract or kidney issues and any presence of sugar can indicate diabetes.
The lab technician checks the appearance of urine such as:
- Clouded appearance, which can indicate an infection.
- Abnormal odors.
- Reddish appearance, which can indicate blood in the urine.
How to prepare for urine tests?
There are no special preparations required for this test. Let your doctor know about any current medication that you are on, which can change your urine color. Make sure you drink plenty of water to collect enough samples for the urine test, however you need to make sure you don’t drink too much water as it may affect the accuracy of the test.
Things to consider after the urine test is completed.
Once your urinalysis results are available, you can consult with a doctor online with MFine just by booking a consultation and uploading your test reports, your doctor will review them and keep you informed about the conditions, your doctor may request more tests to monitor the disease. If you have no other symptoms of an underlying condition and a physical exam shows that your overall health is normal, your doctor will not request any further tests.
What type of infections can a urine test detect?
A urinalysis may be done to check for diabetes or kidney disease or to monitor people who are being treated for these conditions. It can also be done if there are signs of a urinary tract infection.
How much does urine test cost?
The urine test price is affordable and economical and the Urine Test cost ranges between ₹53 – ₹359 across the cities in India.
|City Name||Starting Price|
|Urine Test in Bangalore||Rs. 62|
|Urine Test in Delhi||Rs. 53|
|Urine Test in Kolkata||Rs. 62|
|Urine Test in Chennai||Rs. 62|
|Urine Test in Mumbai||Rs. 299|
|Urine Test in Noida||Rs. 53|
|Urine Test in Gurgaon||Rs. 53|
|Urine Test in Pune||Rs. 62|
How long does it take to get urine test results?
The test results are available within 24-48 hours of the sample collected.
Is Urine Test a definitive test?
Yes, the urine test is definitive however there are follow up blood tests required if there are any abnormalities observed in the urine sample.
How to read the Urine test report?
|Color||colorless, pale/dark yellow or amber|
|Specific gravity||1.005 to 1.025|
|pH||4.5 to 8|
|Glucose||≤130 mg/d(milligrams per day)|
|Urobilinogen||0.1 to 1.0|
|Red blood cells||≤2 RBCs/hpf(red blood cells per high power field)|
|Squamous epithelial cells||≤15-20 squamous epithelial cells/hpf|
|Pus cells||2 to 3 pus cells/hpf|
|Casts||0-5 hyaline casts/lpf (hyaline casts per low power field)|
|Turbidity||clear to slightly hazy|
|White blood cells||≤2-5 WBCs/hpf|
Why to Book Urine Test?
- For routine health check-up
- Prior to surgery
- To detect urinary tract infections, diabetes, kidney disease, liver disease etc.
- Precautionary screening during a pregnancy