Health A to Z Last updated on 2022-11-02 15:15:26
What are the types of osteoporosis?
- Dr. Swati Kaktikar
- 3 Min Read
- Fact Checked
Osteoporosis is a condition that many of us will suffer from at some point in our lives. It causes our bones to become weak and brittle, so much so that even a fall or mild stress caused by bending over or coughing can result in a fracture.
There are two types of osteoporosis. They are classified as primary (type 1) and secondary (type 2)
Primary osteoporosis is the most common type of osteoporosis. It includes postmenopausal and senile osteoporosis, which is associated with the natural aging process. Estrogen in women and testosterone in men are hormones that play an important role in regulating the rate at which your bone is lost. Without estrogen, new bone formation is affected, and when menopause sets in, estrogen levels drop; hence, osteoporosis is more common in women than men.
Various hormones regulate bone formation and bone breakdown. In a young person, this balance is well maintained, but as you grow older, the balance can be set off, leading to osteoporosis.
Read more about symptoms, treatment, and prevention.
It’s caused by certain medical conditions or medications that can interfere with bone formation.
Medical conditions that cause secondary osteoporosis includeEndocrine disorders
It includes conditions like overactive thyroid (hyperthyroidism), high levels of parathyroid hormone, excess cortisol production (Cushing’s syndrome ), and low levels of testosterone in men (hypogonadism) that can interfere with the balance between hormones.Malnutrition
It is caused by gastrointestinal, hepatic, and nutritional disorders, in which your body cannot absorb enough nutrients for healthy bone growth. Examples include Celiac disease, IBS, and Anorexia nervosa.Alcohol and Cigarette
Alcohol abuse is associated with decreased bone density and increased risk of fractures. Among men who smoke, bone loss is more rapid, increasing the risk of vertebral or hip fractures.Renal disorders
It alters how kidneys process calcium, an important mineral that helps develop strong bones.Autoimmune disorders
Rheumatoid arthritis, ankylosing spondylitis, and multiple sclerosis are some conditions that increase the risk of osteoporosis.
Medications that cause secondary osteoporosis include
- Glucocorticoids used for many endocrine disorders
- Antidepressants and anticonvulsants
- Immune system medications like calcineurin inhibitors and antiretroviral therapy
- Proton pump inhibitors used to control gastrointestinal disorders
- Chemotherapy agents used in cancer treatment
Other rare types of osteoporosis
Other rare types of osteoporosis include
It’s a group of genetic disorders present at birth that affect the development of collagen present in bones, causing bones to break more easily. This condition can be mild, severe, or life-threatening.
Symptoms include a bluish tint in the eyes and early hearing loss.
Idiopathic juvenile osteoporosis
It typically occurs in children aged between eight and 14. Doctors still don’t know what causes this condition.
Read more on how more men, too, are at an increased risk of developing osteoporosis.
What are the 3 types of osteoporosis?
Types of osteoporosis include
- Primary (type 1) caused by a natural process of aging
- Secondary (type 2) caused due to medications or certain illnesses that can interfere with bone formation
Other rare forms of osteoporosis include
- Osteogenesis imperfecta, a genetic disorder, and
- Idiopathic juvenile osteoporosis
What are the 3 common causes of osteoporosis?
Osteoporosis is caused by an imbalance of hormones responsible for the development of your bones. A Disbalance of hormones occurs due to
- Natural aging process
- Medications that interfere with your hormones responsible for bone development, and
- Certain illnesses, such as Celiac disease, prevent the absorption of important nutrients responsible for bone development.
What are the 5 symptoms of osteoporosis?
Usually, Osteoporosis is asymptomatic unless fractures occur.
Fractures that occur after minor injury should raise the suspicion of osteoporosis:
- Fractures in the wrist, hip, or vertebrae
- Constant backache caused due to vertebral fracture with or without reduction in height
- Decreased range of motion
- Stooped posture
What does stage 4 osteoporosis mean?
In this stage, the effect of bone loss becomes visible. You’d notice
- Softening of the bones
- Visible deformity such as kyphosis (hump behind the shoulders)
- Difficulty managing normal activities such as getting into and out of a chair or bed, climbing stairs, walking, etc
What is considered severe osteoporosis?
Osteoporosis is diagnosed using a bone density test measured in T - scores. A T- Score of 2.5 SD or more below the young adult mean is considered severe osteoporosis.
What is the difference between type 1 and type 2 osteoporosis?
While type 1 osteoporosis is caused due to an imbalance of hormones responsible for bone development, type 2 is caused by medications/illnesses that interfere with bone development.
What foods affect bone density?
Foods that contain excess salt, alcohol, caffeine, soft drinks, and processed foods are some foods that may interfere with calcium absorption and decrease your bone density.
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