A urine test involves testing the urine sample of the physical, chemical, and microscopic composition of the urine and analyzing the same for any disease. Any problem in the skin, kidney, lungs, bladder, urinary tract affects the urine’s quality color and appearance.
The physical analysis of urine evaluates the following parameters:
- Quantity – The urine output is 1000 to 1500 milliliters per day.
- Appearance – Healthy urine can vary from clear colorless to pale yellow.
- Color – As mentioned above it can be very clear if you are hydrated or be yellow due to dehydration or due to other abnormalities.
- Specific gravity – of urine is around 1.005 to 1.030.
- pH – pH of urine is 6.0 to 7.5.
- Deposit – deposits in urine could be due to red blood cells (RBC), pus cells (PC) , calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM) crystals, calcium oxalate dihydrate (COD) crystals, uric acid crystals, amorphous phosphates, epithelial cells and sperms.
And, the chemical analysis detects the presence of :
- Blood -if the patient has renal stones or urinary tract infection or kidney disease there are chances of blood in the urine which can be checked with a urine test.
- Sugar – diabetes can be checked via urine test.
- Urobilinogen – is formed from the reduction of bilirubin.
- Proteins – can be found in the urine in kidney diseases.
- Ketone – can be found in urine when fat gets burned excessively.
- Bile salts – if there is liver damage the bile salts are found in urine.
- Bile pigment – is found in the urine they are often yellow, orange, or green
Microscopic analysis of urine checks the presence of:
- Red blood cells – RBC is found in urine when there is an issue in the kidney or urinary tract.
- Epithelial cells – epithelial cells are cells that line the surfaces of your body, sometimes found in urine.
- Pus cells – WBC is found in urine which is called pus cells.
- Microbes – urine contains a few microbes, such as bacteria.
- Crystals – few small urine crystals are found in urine which is normal.