The following enzymes and substances are analyzed in the blood. This test is conducted by a certified lab technician.
Bilirubin: When the red blood cells break down, bilirubin is made in our body which is yellow in colour. In a healthy person, when the bilirubin is made, processed by the liver, it is safely removed from the body through urine or stool. However, if the liver is not healthy, the processing of bilirubin becomes difficult as a result it starts to build up in the blood resulting in the yellow colour of eyes and skin.
Total protein test: Through the total protein test, the amount of albumin and globulin in the blood is measured. These are the two proteins that are made in the liver.
Albumin: This is made in the liver and it prevents fluid in the blood vessels from leaking out. This is known as oncotic plasma pressure. Edema is the condition where the excess fluid is flown out from the blood vessels into the tissues. Albumin also plays a role in carrying out different substances such as fatty acids, ions, bilirubin, etc throughout the body.
Globulins: These are a group of proteins that are spherical in shape that are larger than albums. Globulins are synthesized in the liver. There are different types of globulins that perform different functions such as blood clotting, immunoglobulins help in fighting against infections, and help in transporting hormones to different parts of the body
- Lipoproteins carry fats and cholesterol throughout the body.
- If the total protein in the liver is lower than normal, it may lead to conditions such as edema where the ankles and feet swell, ascites where the abdomen swell, and there will also be puffiness of the face.
- If the total protein in the liver is higher than normal, it could be cancer, HIV, inflammation, dehydration, or hepatitis.
- The ratio of albumin to globulin in a healthy person is between 1.0 to 2.1. If the ratio is less than 1, it indicates chronic liver disease, cancer, or kidney disease.