Parietal cells are specialized cells in the stomach that secrete digestive juices that help in food digestion and also make intrinsic factor. Intrinsic factor is essential for the absorption of vitamin B12 from food.
What is the Parietal Cell Antibody Test?
Parietal cell antibodies are autoantibodies that are produced by the immune system that mistakenly target parietal cells lining the stomach wall.
When the body’s immune system mistakenly targets and develops antibodies directed against parietal cells and intrinsic factor, it can cause inflammation. The parietal cells may be damaged in the process. This autoimmune condition can disrupt the production of intrinsic factor. Intrinsic factor enables the formation of a complex that allows vitamin B12 to be absorbed in the small intestine.
This condition of anti-parietal antibody production can lead to pernicious anemia, which is characterized by atrophic body gastritis and vitamin B12 deficiency.
Why is the Parietal Cell Antibody Test Suggested?
Parietal cell antibody test helps evaluate patients suspected of having
- Pernicious anemia.
- Immune-mediated deficiency of vitamin B12.
- Megaloblastic anemia.
How is the Parietal Cell Antibody Test Performed?
A blood sample is drawn from a vein of the arm using a needle for the parietal cell antibody test. This test may be carried out along with other tests, such as complete blood count and blood smear.
What are the Parameters Measured in the Parietal Cell Antibody Test?
The parietal cell antibody test is used to measure anti-parietal cell antibodies for patients with a demonstrated vitamin B12 deficiency.
Preparation before Performing the Parietal Cell Antibody Test
No special preparation is necessary before a Parietal cell antibody test.
Post-Care after Parietal Cell Antibody Test
No post-care is required for the parietal cell antibody test.
Sample Types in Parietal Cell Antibody Test
A small blood sample is needed.
Side Effects/Risks of the Parietal Cell Antibody Test
There is very little risk involved in collecting blood samples; however, extracting blood from some patients may be more difficult than from others.