What is CD10?
CD10, also known as CALLA (common acute lymphocytic leukemia antigen), is an enzyme which is present on the surface of the cells of different organs such as kidney, breasts, placenta etc.12
What is CD10 test?
CD10 serves as a marker for detecting acute lymphocytic leukemia, Burkitt lymphoma and follicular germinal center lymphoma. Lymphoma is cancer that begins in the infection-fighting cells in the immune system.
It is also used for detecting tumors and cancers of different organs such as breast cancer, pancreatic cancer, skin cancer, and prostate cancer.
Why is CD10 test suggested?
Symptoms of lymphoma include:
- Painless swelling of glands/lymph nodes, often in the neck, armpit or groin.
- Shortness of breath/cough.
- Unexplained weight loss.
- Persistent fatigue.
- Night sweat.
You must go and see a doctor if these symptoms persist.
How is CD10 test performed?
Before the tests, the doctor performs a physical exam to check for swollen lymph nodes and also asks questions about your appetite, medical history, current medical problems and treatments, weakness, pain, weight loss etc.
One of the following tests is performed to diagnose lymphoma:
- Lymph node biopsy to check for cancer cells by removing a small part of the lymph node with a needle.
- Bone marrow aspiration in which the doctor removes fluid or tissue from your bone marrow with a needle to look for lymphoma cells.
For the biopsy and bone marrow aspiration, anesthesia is given before the needle is inserted and depending on the part of the body, you may have to lie on your stomach or your back or sit up.
- Blood tests to check the number of certain cells, levels of other substances and to find evidence of infection in your blood.
Certain imaging tests like MRI and CT scan might also be done to look for lymphoma cells in your body.
What are the parameters measured in the CD10 test?
CD10 test is used to measure the level of CD10 in the tissues. If the test result is normal, it’s positive for acute lymphocytic leukemia, Burkitt lymphoma or follicular germinal center lymphoma.
Preparation before performing CD10 test
No special preparation is required. The doctor will ask you certain questions before the tests. Inform your doctor if you are on any medication and have a medical condition. The doctor will give you instructions depending on your condition.
Post-care after CD10 test
Wear the bandage placed by the doctor at the needle site for 24 hours in case of the bone marrow aspiration. In the case of a blood test, place the bandage for 30 mins-1 hours. Avoid any strenuous activity throughout the day.
Sample types in CD10 test
In the case of bone marrow aspiration, body tissues are required. Blood samples are taken in case of blood tests.
Side effects/risks of CD10 test
Bone marrow aspirations, lymph node biopsy, and blood tests are very safe procedures. Complications are extremely rare which include excessive bleeding in case of low platelet counts, infection, discomfort or swelling at the procedure site after a bone marrow aspiration. In the case of a blood test, there might be slight bleeding and discomfort. Tell your doctor if you are facing these problems.