Lab tests aid in accurately diagnosing eosinophilia and help in identifying the underlying eosinophilia causes in the patient. A complete blood count test (CBC) is the first step in the eosinophilia diagnosis. The number of eosinophils in blood is identified from a part of the CBC test known as the white blood cell differential. If the differential shows abnormalities, your doctor might recommend doing another eosinophil test called absolute eosinophil count. An allergy risk assessment test on MFine includes the complete blood count and absolute eosinophil count test and can help in identifying the underlying cause of eosinophilia in patients.
The absolute eosinophil count or (AEC) is a type of blood test that accurately measures the number of eosinophils in the blood. Upto 6% of the human blood comprises of eosinophils. The normal eosinophil level or the normal AEC count in healthy individuals ranges anywhere between 40-400 cells per microliter of blood. An eosinophil count of greater than 500 cells per microlitre of blood is indicative of eosinophilia.
– Mild eosinophilia is when the total eosinophil count range lies anywhere between 500-1500 cells/ml.
– Moderate eosinophilia is indicated eosinophil count range lies between 1500-5000 cells/ml.
– Severe eosinophilia is indicated by the total eosinophil count exceeding 5000 cells/ml. This is well above the normal eosinophil level in a person.
A normal AEC count in the blood may not mean the same in the tissues. If symptoms are evident, a diagnosis may include a biopsy to check for elevated higher than normal eosinophil levels in the tissues.
What does a high eosinophil count mean?
High eosinophil levels are mostly indicative of all allergy-induced inflammation or damage to one or many organs in the body. The skin, lungs, heart and nervous system are organs that are affected more frequently. An eosinophil count range higher than normal for a prolonged period of time may be indicative of hypereosinophilic syndrome.
Hypereosinophilic syndrome is a rare disorder that is associated with an eosinophil cell count of more than 1500 cells/ml over a duration of 6 months or longer. Hypereosinophilia causes are usually unclear. This condition can present itself in anyone no matter the age. However, it is seen more often in men over the age of 50. High eosinophils causes severe inflammation and often has the ability to damage multiple organs in the body leading to the malfunctioning of the same.
What does a low eosinophil count mean?
A low eosinophil count is indicative of possessing lower than normal levels of eosinophils in the blood. Causes of low eosinophils in the blood are alcohol intoxication or the overproduction of cortisol often linked with Cushing syndrome. Otherwise, low eosinophil counts are generally not of major concern as the body’s immune system along with other body parts are able to compensate for its lack.
Eosinophilia can occur in any part of the body and so eosinophilia disorders are often diagnosed based on the location of the eosinophil build-up in the body. For example, eosinophilic esophagitis is a disorder that is caused due to high levels of eosinophils present in the oesophagus. Similarly, pulmonary eosinophilia pertains to eosinophilia of the lungs and respiratory system, eosinophilic colitis pertains to the large intestine, eosinophilic gastritis, to the stomach, and so on.
The diagnosis process is also based on the location of eosinophilic disorders in the body. Further lab tests may include:
- Complete Blood Count Test
- Absolute Eosinophil Count through which the exact levels of eosinophils in the blood can be identified
- Allergy Panels through which allergies to particular substances can be detected
- Stool tests through which parasites that cause eosinophilia infections can be identified.
- Genetic tests through which gene mutations can be detected, especially those that are attributed to hypereosinophilia causes.
Imaging tests may also be conducted to check the condition of your internal organs such as:
- X-rays, which help in assessing lung condition
- CT scans, that aid in identifying abnormalities in the chest, pelvis and abdomen regions; and
- Echocardiograms and MRIs, that help in analysing heart function
Learn more about the eosinophilia diagnosis process from our top physicians on MFine. Schedule your appointment today!