Know your prostate
The prostate is a small walnut-sized gland that is present surrounding the tube that carries urine away from the bladder and to the urethra. It is responsible for secreting the seminal fluid which carries the sperms in the semen.
What is prostate cancer?
Prostate cancer happens when the cells of the prostate glands mutate and begin to spread uncontrollably. It is one of the most common forms of cancer in men and progresses at a very slow rate and there are no early signs of this condition. When the cancer is initially confined to the prostate it is not harmful. However, there are certain types of prostate cancer that can be quite aggressive and therefore dangerous. Treatment works best when it is detected in the early stages when the cancer is only in the prostate glands.
Some facts about prostate cancer that every Indian should know
- It is the third leading cancer among Indian men, accounting for 7% of cancers in the country.
- Around 99% of the cases for prostate cancer are most commonly seen after the age of 50.
- The incidence of prostate cancer has shot up by over 220% since the 1990s.
- Some of the reasons for the increase in the number of prostate cancer cases in the country are changing lifestyles, increased intake of fat in the diet, high body mass index (BMI) and sedentary habits.
Causes of prostate cancer
The direct cause of prostate cancer is yet to be found. Researchers have linked inherited and acquired gene mutations to be the cause of cancer in some cases.
Inherited gene mutations that can cause prostate cancer: RNASEL, BRCA1 & BRCA2, DNA mismatch repair genes, HOXB13Symptoms of prostate
Symptoms of prostate cancer
While there are no noticeable symptoms in its early stages, the condition causes the following symptoms as it progresses:
- Difficulty urinating
- Decrease in the force of urination
- Presence of blood in semen
- Pain or discomfort in the pelvic regions
- Pain in the bones
- Erectile dysfunction
Complications associated with prostate cancer
There are several complications associated with prostate cancer. Once the cancer is in the advanced stages, it metastasizes, meaning that it spreads to nearby areas in the body such as the bladder, bones and other organs. Once this happens, cancer cannot be cured and can only be managed.
Incontinence is another major complication associated with prostate cancer. It is not only caused by prostate cancer but also due to the treatment that is given for it. Treatment options for prostate cancer include drugs, catheters, radiation therapy, and surgery.
Erectile dysfunction is one of the side effects of prostate cancer treatment. Medications and vacuum devices are used to manage this.
Diagnosis of prostate cancer
There are a few screening tests to detect prostate cancer in its early stages such as a DRE (digital rectal exam) and the PSA (Prostate Specific Antigen) test. The doctor looks for any abnormalities in the prostate gland during a DRE and the PSA is a blood test that detects the level of PSA (a substance that is produced by the prostate gland) in it. In case of any abnormalities during the DRE or in case of elevated levels of PSA, further diagnostics may be recommended.
The following tests are used to determine the presence of prostate cancer:
- Ultrasound – A transrectal ultrasound is done to get a clear view of the gland and see if there are any abnormalities in it.
- MRI – MRIs are being increasingly used to detect the presence of cancer in the prostate gland.
- Biopsy – A tissue sample is collected from the prostate gland using a thin needle and analyzed in a lab to detect the presence of carcinoma.
There are many treatment options for prostate cancer depending on the stage in which the cancer is detected. In some cases, immediate treatment may not be necessary such as in the case of low-risk cancer. The doctor might recommend watchful waiting or active surveillance.
This simply means having regular check-ups, blood tests, and scans to monitor the condition. In the case where cancer progresses rapidly, radiation or surgery may be advised. This option may also be given to someone who is already suffering from another serious ailment.
Radiation may be prescribed to kill the cancerous cells in certain cases. There are two kinds of radiation therapies- external and internal. External radiation as the name suggests is radiation therapy that targets the prostate cancer from outside the body while internal radiation uses seeds (that are shaped like rice) placed in the prostate tissue to target the cancerous cells. This is called brachytherapy and the seeds are implanted by a doctor inside the gland.
Hormone therapy relies on the fact that prostate cancer cells use testosterone to grow and multiply. Cutting off the testosterone supply to the cells will reduce the rate of growth and in some cases cause the death of cancer-causing cells. There are two ways to accomplish the same:
- By using medications.
- By using blocking medications.
- By surgically removing the testicles. This is usually suggested as a last resort and in older men.
This method is used to freeze cancer-causing tissues in the prostate gland thus killing the cancerous cells. With advancement in technology, this option has become much safer and has minimal side effects. It is generally recommended in cases where there hasn’t been much relief with radiation therapy.
In cases where the response for hormone therapy hasn’t been satisfactory, chemotherapy is prescribed. This therapy is typically used when cancer hasn’t metastasized.
Reducing the risk of prostate cancer
There isn’t any sure shot way for preventing any kind of cancer. However, certain steps can be taken towards reducing the risk of prostate cancer such as :
- Eating a healthy and balanced diet
- Reducing the amount of dairy and fat consumed
- Exercising and maintaining a healthy lifestyle
- Talking to your physician about your risk of developing prostate cancer
Being aware of the risk and being proactive in managing it is half the battle won. Consulting an oncologist for screening and taking preventing measures can help a long way in reducing the risk of prostate cancer.
mfine helps you consult the best oncologists from top hospitals in the nation. Download the mfine app now and consult online without having to travel to the hospital. Take preventive action against prostate cancer, as prevention is, after all, better than cure.